The Truth About Fats – References

by Mary Enig, PhD, and Sally Fallon

© 1999
First published in Nexus Magazine,
Dec ’98-Jan ’99 and Feb ’99-Mar ’99

D Kritchevsky, et al, “Effect of Cholesterol Vehicle in Experimental Atherosclerosis, Am J Physiol , July-September 1954, 178:30-32

“Notice of Supelco-AOC Award to Kritchevsky,” Inform, 1996, 7:315

M Enig, Trans Fatty Acids in the Food Supply: A Comprehensive Report Covering 60 Years of Research , 2nd Edition, 1995, Enig Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, pp 4-8

D Groom, “Population Studies of Atherosclerosis,” Annals of Int Med , July 1961, 55:1:51-62; W F Enos, et al, “Pathogenesis of Coronary Disease in American Soldiers Killed in Korea,” JAMA , 1955, 158:912

W Laurie, et al, “Atherosclerosis and its Cerebral Complications in the South African Bantu,” Lancet , Feb 1958, pp 231-232

W B Robertson, “Atherosclerosis and Ischaemic Heart Disease,” Lancet, 1959, 1:444

T Gordon, “Mortality Experience Among Japanese in the US, Hawaii and Japan,” Pul Health Rep, 1957, 51:270; O J Pollak, “Diet and Atherosclerosis,” Lancet, 1959, 1:444

H C McGill, et al, “General Findings of the International Atherosclerosis Project,” Laboratory Investigations, 1968, 18:(5):498

R L Smith and E R Pinckney, The Cholesterol Conspiracy, 1991, Warren H Green, Inc. St. Louis, MO. p 125

M De Bakey, et al, “Serum Cholesterol Values in Patients Treated Surgically for Atherosclerosis,” JAMA, 1964, 189:9:655-59

A Keys, “Diet and Development of Coronary Heart Disease,” J Chron Dis, Oct 1956, 4(4):364-380

G Cristakis, “Effect of the Anti-Coronary Club Program on Coronary Heart Disease Risk-Factor Status,”JAMA, Nov 7, 1966, 198:(6):129-35

12a. Researchers at the University of Florida at Gainsborough found trans levels as high as 4.6% in processed canola oil. (S. O’Keefe and others. Journal of Food Lipids1994;1:165-176.) The conversion of omega-3 fatty acids to trans fats can be prevented by certain careful processing methods. (JL Sebedio and others. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000 Feb;54(2):104-13.

“Dietary Goals for the United States—Supplemental Views,” prepared by the Staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, November 1977, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 139-140

R L Rizek, et al, “Fat in Today’s Food Supply—Level of Use and Sources,” J Am Oil Chem Soc, 1974, 51:244

M G Enig, et al, “Dietary Fat and Cancer Trends—A Critique,” Federation Proceedings, July 1978, 37:(9):2215-2220

T H Applewhite, “Statistical ‘Correlations’ Relating Trans-Fats to Cancer: A Commentary,” Federation Proceedings, Oct 1979, 38:(11):2435-2439

F A Kummerow, “Effects of Isomeric Fats on Animal Tissue, Lipid Classes and Atherosclerosis,” Geometrical and Positional Fatty Acid Isomers, E. A. Emken and H. J. Dutton, eds, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL, 1979, pp151-180; D Kritchevsky, “Trans Fatty Acid Effects in Experimental Atherosclerosis,” Federation Proceedings, 1982, 41:2813

M G Enig, Modification of Membrane Lipid Composition and Mixed-Function Oxidases in Mouse Liver Microsomes by Dietary Trans Fatty Acids, Doctoral Dissertation for the University of Maryland, 1984

“New Focus on Trans Fatty Acids,” Food Processing, December 1982, pp 64-66

E J Hunter, “More on Those Trans Fatty Acids,” Food Processing, May 1983, pp 35-36

W M N Ratnayake, et al, “Fatty Acids in Some Common Food Items in Canada,” J Am Coll Nutr, 1993, 12:(6):651-660

M G Enig, et al, “Fatty Acid Composition of the Fat in Selected Food Items with Emphasis on Trans Components,” J Am Oil Chem Soc, 1983, 60:(10):1788-1795

J E Hunter, “Letter to the Editor,” Science, 1984, 224:659

C E Elson, et al, “The Influence of Dietary Unsaturated Cis and Trans and Saturated Fatty Acids on Tissue Lipids of Swine,” Atherosclerosis, 1981, 40:115-137

F R Senti, ed, Health Aspects of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids, Bethesda, MD, Life Sciences Research Office-Fed Am Soc Exp Biol, 1985

J E Hunter and T Applewhite, “Isomeric Fatty Acids in the US Diet: Levels and Health Perspectives,” Am J Clin Nutr, 1986, 44:707-717

Ace Federal Reporter, Inc., Stenotype Reporters, 444 North Capitol Street, Suite 402, Washington, DC 20001 (202) 347-3700

Food Chemical News, January 25, 1988, 29:(47):52; Nutrition Week, Community Nutrition Institute (CNI), June 16, 1988, p 6

Smith, R and E R Pinckney, Diet, Blood Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review of the Literature, Vol 2, 1991, Vector Enterprises, Sherman Oaks, CA

Castelli, William, “Concerning the Possibility of a Nut. . .” Archives of Internal Medicine, Jul 1992, 152:(7):1371-1372

“Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial; Risk Factor Changes and Mortality Results,” JAMA, September 24, 1982, 248:(12):1465

F H Mattson, et al, “Effect of Dietary Cholesterol on Serum Cholesterol in Men,” Am J Clin Nutr, 1972, 25:589

P Addis, Food and Nutrition News, March/April 1990, 62:(2):7-10

“The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results. I. Reduction in Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease,” JAMA, 1984, 251:359

S M Grundy, “Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease: A New Era,” JAMA, Nov 28, 1986, 256:(20):2849-2858

“Letters to the Editor and Authors’ Responses,” J Am Coll Nutr, 1991, 10:5:510-521

E J Hunter and T H Applewhite, “Reassessment of Trans Fatty Acid Availability in the US Diet,” Am J Clin Nutr, 1991, 54:363-369

F. A. Kummerow, “Nutritional Effects of Isomeric Fats: Their Possible Influence on Cell Metabolism or Cell Structure,” Dietary Fats and Health, (E. G. Perkins and W. J. Visek, eds), Americna Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL, 1983, pp 391-402; F. A. Kummerow, “Nutritional Aspects of Isomeric Fats,” Lipids in Modern Nutrition, M Horisberger and U Bracco, eds, 1987, Nestle Nutrition, Vevey/Raven Press, New York

Mann, G V, et al, “Atherosclerosis in the Maasai,” Am J Epidemiol, 1972, 95:26-37

Coronary Heart Disease, The Dietary Sense and Nonsense, George V Mann, ed, 1993, Veritas Society, London, p 1

A general review of citations for problems with polyunsaturate consumption is found in E R Pinckney, and C Pinckney, The Cholesterol Controversy, 1973, Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles, pp127-131

C V Felton, et al, “Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Composition of Human Aortic Plaques,” Lancet, 1994, 344:1195

D Kritchevsky, Medical Counterpoint, March 1969

B B Teter, et al, “Milk Fat Depression in C57B1/6J Mice Consuming Partially Hydrogenated Fat,” Journal of Nutrition, 1990, 120:818-824; Barnard, et al, “Dietary Trans Fatty Acids Modulate Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition and Insulin Binding in Monkeys,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 1990, 1:190-195

T Hanis, et al, “Effects of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids on Reproductive Perforamnce of Wistar Rats,” British Journal of Nutrition, 1989, 61:519-529

B Koletzko and J Muller, “Cis- and Trans-Isomeric Fatty Acids in Polasma Lipids of Newborn Infants and Their Mothers,” Biology of the Neonate, 1990, 57:172-178

D Horrobin, “The Regulation of Prostaglandin Biosynthesis by Manipultion of Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism,” Reviews in Pure and Applied Pharmacological Sciences, 1983, 4:339-383

G V Mann, “Metabolic Consequences of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids,” The Lancet, 1994, 343:1268-1271

L Kohlmeier, et al, “Stores of Trans Fatty Acids and Breast Cancer Risk, “Am J Clin Nutr, 1995, 61:896;A25

R P Mensink and M Katan, “Effect of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids on High-Density and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Subjects,” N Eng J Med, 1990, 323:439-445

M G Enig, et al, “Isomeric Trans Fatty Acids in the U.S. Diet,” J Am Coll Nutr, 1990, 9:471-486

W C Willett, et al, “Consumption of Trans-Fatty Acids in Relation to Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Women,” Society for Epidemiology Research, June 1992, Annual Meeting, Abstract 249

W C Willett, et al, “Intake of Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Women,” Lancet, 1993, 341:581-585

J J Kabara, The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids, J J Kabara, ed, The American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL, 1978, 1-14; L A Cohen, et al, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1986, 77:43

B A Watkins, et al, “Importance of Vitamin E in Bone Formation and in Chrondrocyte Function” Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, AOCS Proceedings, 1996; B A Watkins, and M F Seifert, “Food Lipids and Bone Health,” Food Lipids and Health, R E McDonald and D B Min, eds, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY, p 101

J F Mead, et al, Lipids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Nutrition, Plenum Press, 1986, New York

A A Nanji, et al, Gastroenterology, Aug 1995, 109(2):547-54; Y S Cha, and D S Sachan, J Am Coll Nutr, Aug 1994, 13(4):338-43

M L Garg, et al, The FASEB Journal, 1988, 2:(4):A852; R M Oliart Ros, et al, Meeting Abstracts, AOCS Proceedings, May 1998, p 7, Chicago, IL

L D Lawson and F Kummerow, “B-Oxidation of the Coenzyme A Esters of Vaccenic, Elaidic and Petroselaidic Acids by Rat Heart Mitochondria,” Lipids, 1979, 14:501-503

E M Cranton and J P Frackelton, “Free Radical Pathology in Age-Associated Diseases: Treatment with EDTA Chelation, Nutrition and Antioxidants,” Journal of Holistic Medicine, Spring/Summer 1984, pp 6-37

H Engelberg, “Low Serum Cholesterol and Suicide,” Lancet, March 21, 1992, 339:727-728

R B Alfin-Slater, and L Aftergood, “Lipids,” Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 6th ed, 1980, R S Goodhart and M E Shils, eds, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, p 134

M Gurr, “A Fresh Look at Dietary Recommendations,” Inform, April 1996, 7:4:432-435

AIN/ASCN Task Force on Trans Fatty Acids, “Position Paper on Trans Fatty Acids,” Am J Clin Nutr, 1996, 63:663-670

R M Lemmon, D Kritchevsky, et al, “The Effect of Delta-7-Cholestenol Feeding on the Cholesterol and Lipoproteins of Rabbit Serum,” Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics (NY), July 1954, 51:(1):1161-9; D Kritchevsky, et al, “Effect of Cholesterol Vehicle in Experimental Atherosclerosis, Am J Physiol, July-September 1954 178:30-32

R E Olson, “Evolution of Ideas about the Nutritional Value of Dietary Fat: Introduction,” J Nutr, 1998 128:421S-425S